VIF - Virion Infectivity Factor
VIF counteracts the innate antiviral activity of host cytidine deaminase nucleic acid editing enzymes and increases infectivity.
Late timing of expression.
7 to 20
molecules are incorporated into each virion
in order to function. Vif Essential for the replication of HIV in lymphocytes and macrophages
interacts with viral
genomic RNA, and is packaged into the nucleoprotein complex
in improperly packaged nucleoprotein cores
activity is influenced by
Vif multimerization . When involved in
mRNP complexes, may
mediate viral RNA interactions with HIV-1 Vif precursors during
the formation of the viral particle. Gag
is a human cytoplasmic
protein that provides an intracellular defence against HIV replication
in T cells by binding to viral RNA. APOBEC3G
expression is sufficient
to prevent HIV infection. APOBEC3G Viruses lacking
are only able to replicate in cells lacking Vif . APOBEC3G
is homologous to
APOBEC3G cytidine deaminase, an enzyme that edits RNA.
functions during virus particle assembly. Vif
Vif Function & Host-Virus Protein Interactions: [ TOP]
Interactions highlighted in the image:
Potential interactions (not in the image):
Genomic Location & Protein Sequence: [ TOP]
(HXB2): 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
| | | | | | | | | | MENRWQVMIV WQVDRMRIRT WKSLVKHHMY VSGKARGWFY RHHYESPHPR ISSEVHIPLG DARLVITTYW GLHTGERDWH LGQGVSIEWR KKRYSTQVDP
110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 | | | | | | | | | ELADQLIHLY YFDCFSDSAI RKALLGHIVS PRCEYQAGHN KVGSLQYLAL AALITPKKIK PPLPSVTKLT EDRWNKPQKT KGHRGSHTMN GH [ download in fasta format]
192 amino acids
Molecular Weight: 22513 Da
Theoretical pI: 9.89
Protein Domains/Folds/Motifs: [ TOP]
InterPro signature for Retroviral Vif protein - IPR000475
Secondary Structure prediction :
Low Complexity Regions - seg:
2 potential sites
GLhtGE (71 - 76)
GQgvSI (82 - 87)
Protein kinase C:
4 potential sites
TwK (20 - 22)
SgK (32 - 34)
SpR (130 - 132)
TpK (155 - 157)
Casein kinase II:
1 potential site
TqvD (96 - 99)
cAMP / cGMP kinase:
1 potential site
KRyS (92 - 95)
Cell attachment motif:
Asp Protease motif:
Asp Prot Retro motif:
Zinc-finger CCHC motif:
Leucine Zipper motif:
Primary and Secondary Database Entries: [ TOP]
Reviews and References: [ TOP]
HIV Sequence Compendium 2000 Kuiken CL, Foley B, Hahn B, Korber B, Marx PA, McCutchan F, Mellors JW, Mullins JI, Sodroski J, Wolinksy S.
Theoretical Biol. & Biophys. Group,
Los Alamos Nat Lab, LA-UR 01-3860 [Read it online: Compendium] 2 -
Retroviruses Coffin JM, Hughes SH, Varmus HE.
CD-ROM ed. (2002)
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press [Read it online: NCBI Bookshelf] 3 -
The HIV 'A' (sor) gene product is essential for virus infectivity. Strebel K, Daugherty D, Clouse K.
Nature 328: 728-730 (1987) [pubmed:
2441266] 4 -
The Vif protein of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses is packaged into virions and
associates with viral core structures. Liu H, Wu X, Newman M.
J Virol 69: 7630-7638 (1995) [pubmed:
7494271] 5 -
Role of vif during packing of the core of HIV-1. Hoglund S, Ohagen A, Lawrence K.
Virology 201(2): 349-355 (1994) [pubmed:
8184544] 6 -
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif protein is packaged into the nucleoprotein complex
through an interaction with viral genomic RNA. Khan MA.
J Virol 75(16): 7252-7265 (2001) [pubmed:
11461998] 7 -
The multimerization of human immunodeficiency virus type I Vif protein: a requirement for Vif
function in the viral life cycle. Yang S, Sun Y, Zhang H.
J Biol Chem 276(7): 4889-4893 (1994) [pubmed:
11071884] 8 -
Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif particle incorporation. Camaur D, Trono D.
J Virol 70(9): 6106-6111 (1996) [pubmed:
8709234] 9 -
Suppression of APOBEC3-mediated restriction of HIV-1 by Vif. Feng Y, Baig TT, Love RP, Chelico L.
Front Microbiol. 5:450 (2014) [pubmed:
25206352] 10 -
HIV-1 Vif: a guardian of the virus that opens up a new era in the research field of restriction factors. Takaori-Kondo A, Shindo K.
Front Microbiol. 4:34 (2013) [pubmed:
23430691] 11 -
HIV-1 Vif protein binds the editing enzyme APOBEC3G and induces its degradation. Marin M, Rose KM, Kozak SL, Kabat D.
Nat Med. 9(11):1398-403 (2003) [pubmed:
14528301] 12 -
The SOCS-box of HIV-1 Vif interacts with ElonginBC by induced-folding to recruit its Cul5-containing ubiquitin ligase complex. Bergeron JR, Huthoff H, Veselkov DA, Beavil RL, Simpson PJ, Matthews SJ, Malim MH, Sanderson MR.
PLoS Pathog. 6(6):e1000925 (2010) [pubmed:
20532212] 13 -
Structural analysis of viral infectivity factor of HIV type 1 and its interaction with A3G, EloC and EloB. da Costa KS, Leal E, dos Santos AM, Lima e Lima AH, Alves CN, Lameira J.
PLoS One 9(2):e89116 (2014) [pubmed:
24586532] 14 -
HIV-1 Vif N-terminal motif is required for recruitment of Cul5 to suppress APOBEC3. Evans SL, Schön A, Gao Q, Han X, Zhou X, Freire E, Yu XF.
Retrovirology 11:4 (2014) [pubmed:
24422669] 15 -
A second human antiretroviral factor, APOBEC3F, is suppressed by the HIV-1 and HIV-2 Vif proteins. Wiegand HL, Doehle BP, Bogerd HP, Cullen BR.
EMBO J. 23(12):2451-8 (2004) [pubmed:
15152192] 16 -
Defining HIV-1 Vif residues that interact with CBFβ by site-directed mutagenesis. Matsui Y, Shindo K, Nagata K, Io K, Tada K, Iwai F, Kobayashi M, Kadowaki N, Harris RS, Takaori-Kondo A.
Virology 449:82-7 (2014) [pubmed:
24418540] 17 -
Induction of APOBEC3G ubiquitination and degradation by an HIV-1 Vif-Cul5-SCF complex. Yu X, Yu Y, Liu B, Luo K, Kong W, Mao P, Yu XF.
Science 302(5647):1056-60 (2003) [pubmed: